Introduction to Cyber Security

Origin of Cyberspace

The concept of "cyberspace" encompasses more than just the Internet. It can also include other forms of digital technology, such as computer networks and virtual reality. In this digital realm, issues related to intellectual property and copyright infringement can arise. Additionally, cyberspace has become a place for building relationships and communities. Some people believe that the ability for people to communicate and share ideas across borders brings the world closer together, while others argue that people will continue to associate with those who have similar interests and backgrounds. Regardless, the Internet and other forms of cyberspace have made it easier to disseminate ideas and values quickly. While the free exchange of information in cyberspace is valuable, it's important to use this space responsibly in order to ensure its value for humanity. This requires a value-based perspective on the use of technology in cyberspace.

Origin of the Term:

The term "cyberspace" was first introduced by science fiction author William Gibson in his 1982 story "Burning Chrome" and gained widespread recognition through its use in his 1984 novel Neuromancer. In the novel, Gibson describes cyberspace as a "consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators" and a "graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system." Gibson later commented that he chose the term because it was evocative and buzzworthy, but had no real meaning behind it. Today, the term "cyberspace" is commonly used to refer to the digital realm, including the Internet and other forms of digital technology.

Cyberspace as an Internet Metaphor

The term "cyberspace" is often used to refer to objects and identities that exist within the communication network of the Internet. This interpretation suggests that events taking place on the Internet do not occur in the physical location of the participants or servers, but rather "in cyberspace." In this sense, cyberspace is not meant to be equated with physical space, but rather with the abstract, mathematical concept of space. The concept of cyberspace therefore refers to the possibility of navigating and interacting with different pages and sites on the Internet, and the potential to encounter something unknown or unexpected.

Videogames also adopt the cyberspace metaphor by representing players as avatars on the screen and allowing them to engage with each other in a virtual space. However, current virtual reality technology has not yet advanced to the point where fully immersive virtual environments are practical.

Despite the fact that some of the more radical predictions about the impact of the global communication network on state influence have not come to fruition, the term "cyberspace" continues to be used and is often incorporated into the terminology of virtual communities, such as Linden Lab's Second Life. The metaphor of cyberspace has also been useful in shaping military strategies and has been adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense. However, it is important to note that the metaphor of cyberspace has its limitations, particularly when it becomes conflated with physical infrastructure.

1. Cyberspace and virtual reality:

While both cyberspace and virtual reality involve simulated experiences, they have different orientations. Cyberspace refers to the plane of reality within which virtual reality experiences can occur, while virtual reality refers to the simulated experiences themselves.

To understand the difference between the two concepts, it can be helpful to consider the way that humans experience reality in physical space. Humans relate to reality through their five senses, and this sense of reality can also be applied to imagined objects. Cyberspace is a frame of reference in which people can have quasi-real experiences with such objects, while virtual reality refers to the simulated experiences with these objects.

It's worth noting that the concept of reality extends beyond physical experiences and can also include non-physical events or phenomena, such as emotions. In this sense, virtual reality may be seen as a false reality that can be experienced virtually. The question of reality raises a number of philosophical questions that go beyond current epistemological models, which tend to prioritize sense perception.

2. What is Exactly Cyber Security ?

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Cybersecurity Means Different Things to Different Folks”

Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computers, servers, and other electronic devices from digital attacks. These attacks can take many forms, such as malware, hacking, and phishing, and can have a range of consequences, from theft of personal information to disruption of service. The term "cybersecurity" is often used to describe measures taken to protect against these types of attacks, but the specific measures taken can vary significantly depending on the context in which they are implemented.

For individuals, cybersecurity may involve protecting personal data and devices from unauthorized access and ensuring that they are free from malware. For small businesses, it may involve protecting credit card data and implementing data security standards at point-of-sale registers. For firms conducting online business, it may involve protecting servers that are accessed by untrusted outsiders. For shared service providers, it may involve protecting data centers that host servers for multiple organizations. For governments, it may involve establishing different classifications of data and implementing related laws, policies, procedures, and technologies to protect it.

Technically speaking, cybersecurity is a subset of information security that specifically addresses electronic information and systems, while information security encompasses all forms of data. However, in practice, the terms are often used interchangeably, and many people consider information security measures that are technically outside the scope of cybersecurity to be part of it. It's important to carefully consider the specific threats and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed in order to effectively implement cybersecurity measures.

Cybersecurity Is a Constantly Moving Target:

Technological advancements have had a significant impact on cybersecurity. As new technologies are developed, they can create new risks that must be addressed in order to protect against digital attacks. Some key areas where technological changes have had a particularly significant impact on cybersecurity include:

Digital data: The transition to digital storage of information has made it more complex to control access to data and protect it from attacks. The move to email and chat has also moved a large amount of sensitive information to Internet-connected servers, while the shift from film to digital photography and videography has made it easier for criminals to steal or hold images ransom. The Internet of Things (IoT): The proliferation of connected devices, known as the Internet of Things (IoT), has increased the number of potential entry points for attackers and made it more difficult to secure networks. Cloud computing: The use of cloud computing has made it possible for businesses to store and access data remotely, but it has also introduced new risks, such as data breaches and unauthorized access to data.

Mobile devices: The widespread use of mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, has made it more difficult to protect against attacks, as these devices are often used to access sensitive data and are vulnerable to hacking and malware. Economic model shifts

Economic model shifts can also impact cybersecurity. For example, the move from a product-based economy

The Internet:

The Internet has revolutionized the way we communicate, access information, and do business, but it has also created new opportunities for hackers to exploit vulnerabilities and gain unauthorized access to sensitive data. The widespread adoption of online banking and e-commerce in the 1990s made it easier for hackers to steal money and goods through cyber attacks, which in turn increased the incentives for unethical individuals to enter the world of cybercrime. The rise of the Internet has also made it possible for hackers to disrupt businesses, manipulate elections, and steal large sums of money on a global scale, something that was unimaginable before the Internet era. It is important for individuals and organizations to stay vigilant and take steps to protect themselves against cyber threats in the age of the Internet.


Cryptocurrency has become a popular form of digital currency that allows for decentralized and secure transactions without the need for a central authority. While cryptocurrency has the potential to revolutionize the financial industry, it has also attracted the attention of criminals who use it to facilitate cybercrime. Cryptocurrency offers a high level of anonymity, which makes it difficult to trace the origin of transactions and the identity of the parties involved. This anonymity has made it easier for criminals to launder money and conduct illegal activities without being detected. In addition, the volatile nature of cryptocurrency prices has made it possible for criminals to earn large profits through cyber attacks. As a result, it is important for law enforcement agencies and cybersecurity professionals to monitor the use of cryptocurrency and develop strategies to prevent its abuse.

Smart Devices

The proliferation of smart devices and the Internet of Things (the universe of devices that are not traditional computers, but that are connected to the Internet) means that unhackable solid state machines are being quickly replaced with devices that can potentially be controlled by hackers halfway around the world. Smart devices can be a security risk because they often have weak security measures in place, making them vulnerable to cyber attacks. In addition, the sheer number of smart devices that are connected to the internet increases the surface area for potential attacks, making it more difficult to secure all of these devices.

Big Data

Big data refers to the large amounts of data that are collected, stored, and analyzed by organizations. While big data is helping facilitate the creation of many cybersecurity technologies, it also creates opportunities for attackers. By correlating large amounts of information about the people working for an organization, for example, a criminal can more easily than before identify ideal methods for social engineering their way into the organization or locate and exploit possible vulnerabilities in the organization’s infrastructure.

3. Understanding Digital Forensic:

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Digital forensics is a fascinating and complex profession that involves using scientific principles, methodologies, and techniques to uncover and analyze digital evidence in the course of legal investigations. While the media may portray this field as glamorous and straightforward, the reality is that it requires a great deal of specialized training and skills to properly apply these principles and techniques. Digital forensics has evolved significantly since the 1960s, as the threat landscape has changed from simple cybercrimes to more sophisticated attacks. Today, it is a well-established discipline that adheres to the principles of forensic science, and is recognized for its comprehensive body of knowledge (CBK) of proven methodologies and techniques. Whether you are a seasoned professional or just starting out in digital forensics, it is an exciting field that offers endless opportunities for growth and development.

Why is it Important ?

According to the Locard exchange principle, every crime leaves behind some form of evidence, and every perpetrator takes something away with them. In the digital world, this can take the form of digital evidence that can be used in forensic investigations. It is crucial for organizations to understand the technical requirements for practicing digital forensics and to follow proper protocols in order to preserve the integrity and authenticity of this evidence. Failing to do so can result in compromised or lost evidence, evidence that is not admissible in court, and non-compliance with laws and regulations. It is essential for organizations to have a strong defense-in-depth strategy in place, which includes the proper handling of digital evidence, in order to effectively prosecute intruders and protect against cybercrime.

Legal Aspects

It is essential for organizations to consistently follow forensic science principles, methodologies, and techniques, even if the end goal of the investigation is not legal prosecution. This is because the investigation may still result in legal action, such as employee termination, and it is important that the evidence is collected and handled in a manner that is admissible in court. To ensure the integrity and authenticity of digital evidence, it is necessary to create an exact copy of the data, preserve the authenticity of the data through the use of cryptographic algorithms, establish a chain of custody, and record the actions taken by people during the different investigative phases. By following these guidelines, organizations can ensure that they are well-prepared to handle any legal proceedings that may arise as a result of their investigations.

4.Networks and the Internet:

The internet is one of the most significant inventions of the 21st century, revolutionizing the way we communicate, work, and go about our daily lives. From paying bills online to ordering food and making international video calls, the internet has made many tasks faster, cheaper, and more convenient. With the proliferation of internet-enabled devices like smartphones and tablets, we can stay connected with the rest of the world no matter where we are. The internet has also changed the way we use traditional devices, such as TVs and phones, which can now be used for making calls, watching movies, and more through the internet.

But where did this revolutionary technology come from? The internet has a long and complex history, beginning with the development of computer networks in the 1960s. These early networks were primarily used by government agencies and research institutions, but as the technology evolved, the internet began to expand to include more users and applications. Today, the internet is a global network of interconnected computers and devices, connecting people and businesses all over the world.

As the internet continues to evolve, it is clear that it will continue to play a central role in our lives and shape the way we live and work. It is hard to imagine a world without the internet, and it is clear that it has changed the course of human history in countless ways.


Have you ever stopped to wonder how you can type in a website's name, like "," rather than its corresponding IP address, like "," and still access the website? The answer lies in the Domain Name System (DNS), a server that translates the human-readable website names into the numerical IP addresses that computers understand.

Every time you request a website by typing in its name, a process called DNS name resolution is initiated in the background. Your computer has a local database called the DNS cache, which stores the IP addresses of recently visited websites. If the IP address of the website you're trying to access isn't found in your local DNS cache, your computer will then check the DNS server of your Internet Service Provider (ISP). These servers also keep a cache of recently visited websites, so if the information isn't available there, the query is forwarded to the root name servers.

There are currently 13 root name servers, which include VeriSign Global Registry Services, the University of Southern California - Information Sciences Institute, Cogent Communications, and the University of Maryland, among others. These root name servers are responsible for publishing the root zone file, which designates the locations of the authoritative servers for various top-level domains (TLDs) such as ".org," ".com," ".biz," and ".in."

The TLD name servers function like switchboards, directing the request to the appropriate authoritative name server for the domain. These servers also store other useful information, including DNS records. The record of the address is then sent back to the requesting host computer through the TLD name servers, the ISP's DNS server, and the name servers. Each intermediate server stores the record of the IP address in its DNS cache so that it doesn't have to go through the process again if it receives the same request. If you request the same URL again, the DNS cache of your local host PC will return the IP address of the requested website.

Internet Infrastructure:

The Internet is a vast network of interconnected networks, owned and operated by various individuals and organizations. To oversee and regulate this massive network, the Internet Society was founded in 1992.

When we disconnect our computers from the Internet, they function as standalone systems. However, when we connect to the Internet through a modem, we become part of a network through our Internet Service Provider (ISP). The ISP serves as a link between the Internet backbone and our individual computers, routing data to us through Network Access Points (NAPs). These NAPs are provided by large telecommunications companies, which are responsible for building and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to route data between countries and continents.

ISPs connect to the Internet backbone at NAPs and are responsible for building and managing local networks. When we connect our computer to the Internet through a modem, we become part of the local ISP network, which in turn connects us to the Internet backbone through a NAP. Our requested data is then routed through the backbone to the NAP of our friend's ISP network, where it is delivered to their computer once they are connected to the Internet.

World Wide Web:

he World Wide Web (also known as the "web") is just one of many services provided by the Internet. It is a system for exchanging information over the Internet, using the HTTP protocol to establish communication. The web was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) and consists of all the public websites and devices that access their content. Websites are collections of web pages containing a variety of information in the form of text, images, audio, and video. We access these web pages through application software called web browsers, such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer.

It's important to note that the web is not the same thing as the Internet. The Internet is a global network of interconnected networks, while the web is a system for accessing and sharing information over the Internet. Other popular services provided by the Internet include email, FTP, Usenet, and messaging services.

Aspects of Cybersecurity:

Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, and networks from digital attacks, theft, and damage. These attacks can come from a variety of sources, including hackers, viruses, and malware. To protect ourselves, it's important to follow cybersecurity protocols that aim to prevent unauthorized access, modification, and deletion of data.

The CIA triad is a model used to guide information security policies in organizations. It stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability, and is often referred to as the three pillars of security. Most security policies are based on these principles.

As more and more people spend time on the Internet, it's important to be aware of the potential threats and vulnerabilities. Cybercriminals and hackers can exploit vulnerabilities through malicious software and attacks, making it essential for all Internet users to have countermeasure systems in place to protect their data. Cybersecurity is essential for safeguarding our systems in the vulnerable online world.

5. Cyber Stalking, Fraud and Abuse.

Cybercrime, or computer-related crime, refers to illegal activities that are carried out using computers or the internet. This includes crimes such as fraud, intellectual property theft, child pornography, privacy violations, and identity theft. The widespread use of computers and the internet, as well as advances in computer technology, have made cybercrime more complex and prevalent in recent years.

Cybercriminals have become increasingly creative in their methods of committing computer-related crimes, taking advantage of new technologies as they become available. However, many individuals and organizations have been slow to adopt cybersecurity measures to protect themselves, making them vulnerable to cyber attacks. Cybercrime often targets individuals, businesses, and governments, seeking to gain access to sensitive information or disrupt operations.

One of the unique aspects of cybercrime is that it can occur over vast distances, with a cybercriminal potentially launching an attack from anywhere in the world. This makes it difficult for law enforcement to effectively combat cybercrime, as jurisdiction and laws can vary between countries. However, most cybercriminals leave behind some form of trace that can be tracked by authorities, and international cybercrime treaties, such as the Council of Europe's convention, have been put in place to give law enforcement the power to investigate and prosecute cybercrimes that cross national borders.

Types of Cybercrime

Cyberstalking is another form of cybercrime that involves the use of the internet or other electronic means to harass or intimidate someone. This can take the form of threatening emails or messages, repeated unwanted contact, or the dissemination of personal information online. Cyberstalking is a serious crime that can have serious consequences for the victim, including emotional distress, damage to reputation, and even physical harm.

Cryptojacking is a type of cybercrime that involves the unauthorized use of an individual's or organization's computer resources to mine cryptocurrency. This is done by installing malicious software on the victim's computer that uses its processing power to solve complex mathematical problems and generate cryptocurrency. This can result in significant damage to the victim's computer, as well as significant financial losses.

Ransomware is another type of cyber attack that involves locking a victim's computer or encrypting their data until a ransom is paid to the attacker. This can be especially devastating for businesses, as it can disrupt operations and lead to significant financial losses.

Phishing scams are a common form of internet fraud that involve the use of fake emails or websites to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial information. These scams can be difficult to detect, as they often use branding and language that is familiar to the victim in order to make them more believable.

Combating cybercrime requires a multi-faceted approach that includes education, awareness, and strong cybersecurity measures. International cooperation and the development of laws and regulations specific to cybercrime are also important in effectively addressing this increasingly complex and evolving threat.

ATM Fraud:

Another method of ATM fraud is known as "cash trapping." This involves the use of an illegal device that prevents cash from being dispensed from the ATM, but still registers the transaction as successful. The criminal will then retrieve the device, along with the trapped cash, after the victim has left. This type of fraud can be particularly difficult to detect, as the victim may not realize that their transaction was not completed until they check their account balance at a later time.

ATM fraud can be devastating for individuals and businesses, as it can result in significant financial losses and damage to reputation. To protect against ATM fraud, it is important to be cautious when using ATMs, especially free-standing ones located in busy areas. It is also important to regularly check account balances and report any unauthorized transactions as soon as possible. Financial institutions and ATM manufacturers can also take steps to prevent fraud, such as implementing security measures such as chip-and-pin technology and regularly inspecting and maintaining their ATMs.

Piracy and File Sharing:

Digital piracy not only causes financial losses for the industries involved, but it also violates the rights of the creators and owners of the copyrighted material. It is important for individuals and organizations to respect copyright laws and to purchase legitimate copies of movies, music, software, and other forms of media.

There are also legal options available for downloading and streaming media, such as subscription-based services like Netflix, Hulu, and Spotify. These services offer a wide variety of content for a reasonable price and help to support the creators and owners of the material.

In addition, there are steps that industries can take to protect against digital piracy. This can include implementing technological measures such as digital rights management (DRM) systems and watermarking, as well as working with law enforcement to identify and prosecute individuals and organizations involved in illegal duplication and distribution of copyrighted material.


There are different types of hacking, including:

Network hacking: This type of hacking involves breaching the security of a computer network to gain unauthorized access. Network hacking can be used to steal sensitive information, disrupt services, or gain control of systems.

Malware attacks: Malware is a type of software that is designed to damage or disrupt computer systems. This can include viruses, worms, and Trojan horses. Malware attacks can be used to steal information, disrupt services, or gain unauthorized access to systems.

Phishing attacks: Phishing is a type of social engineering attack that involves sending fake emails or creating fake websites to trick individuals into divulging sensitive information, such as passwords or financial details.

Denial of service (DoS) attacks: DoS attacks involve flooding a website or network with traffic to make it unavailable to users. This can be used to disrupt services or as a form of protest.

SQL injection attacks: SQL injection attacks involve injecting malicious code into a website's database through a vulnerability in the website's code. This can be used to steal sensitive information or gain unauthorized access to systems.

It is important for individuals and organizations to take steps to protect against hacking and other cyber-attacks. This can include implementing strong passwords, using security software, keeping software and systems up to date, and being cautious when sharing sensitive information online.

6. Denial of Serce Attacks Malware:

To determine where the malware fits in the kill chain, you would need to identify the various stages of an attack. The kill chain typically consists of the following stages:

  • Reconnaissance: The attacker gathers information about the target.

  • Weaponization: The attacker creates or acquires the tools and techniques needed for the attack.

  • Delivery: The attacker delivers the malicious payload to the target.

  • Exploitation: The attacker exploits vulnerabilities in the target's system to gain access.

  • Installation: The attacker installs the malware on the target's system.

Command and control:

The attacker establishes a connection with the malware to control it and receive information from the target.

Actions on objectives:

The attacker carries out the intended actions, such as stealing data, encrypting files for ransom, or disrupting services.

By analyzing the malware's capabilities and understanding the various stages of the attack, you can determine where the malware fits in the kill chain and what the attacker's intentions are.

Types of Malwares :

Malware is a broad term that refers to any software that is designed to harm or exploit a computer or network. There are many different types of malware, each with its own specific characteristics and behaviors. Some common types of malware include viruses, worms, trojans, ransomware, adware, spyware, and rootkits.


Worms are a type of malware that can spread and replicate on their own, without the need for a host program or human intervention. They can exploit vulnerabilities in a target system or use social engineering tactics to trick users into running them. Worms can cause damage to networks and systems by consuming bandwidth, slowing down or crashing systems, and spreading to other devices. They can also be used to distribute other types of malware, such as viruses or Trojans.

Spyware : Spyware transmits data from the hard drive without the target knowing about the information theft.

Rootkits: When a system is compromised, rootkits are designed to hide the fact that you have malware. Rootkits enable malware to operate in the open by imitating normal files.

Bots: Bots are automatic scripts that take command of your system. Your computer is used as a "zombie" to carry out attacks online. Most of the time, you are not aware that your computer is carrying out these attacks.

Adware: This is software that downloads, gathers, and presents unwanted ads or data while redirecting searches to certain websites.

Ransomware: This malware is designed to freeze files and, as the name suggests, demand ransom from its victims in exchange for releasing the data; successful attackers realized that they could take it a step further by demanding money but not releasing the data. Instead, attackers demand another payment, and the cycle continues.

Paying up might seem like the only solution to dealing with ransomware, but the fact is, once you pay, the attackers will keep asking for more.

Remote Access Tool (RAT): After your system is compromised, RAT helps attackers remain in your systems and networks. RAT helps criminals to obtain your keystrokes, take photos with your camera, and/or expand to other machines. One of the most dominant features of this type permits the malware to transfer all of this information from the victim to the attacker in a protected way, so you are not even conscious you are being spied on.

Preventing Malware Attacks:

● Update your system and installed software regularly to close security vulnerabilities.

● Install and run reputable anti-virus and anti-malware software, and keep it up to date.

● Back up your data regularly to prevent data loss in case of a malware attack.

● Consider using a firewall to protect your system and network.

● Use strong, unique passwords and enable two-factor authentication whenever possible.

● Be cautious when opening email attachments or links, even if they appear to be from a trusted source.

● Be mindful of the websites you visit and the information you share online. Avoid visiting suspicious websites or clicking on unfamiliar links.

● Avoid using public or unsecured WiFi networks whenever possible.

● Be aware of social engineering tactics and don't fall for them.

By following these best practices, you can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to a malware attack.

Network Security:

Another way to prevent malware attacks is to keep all software and devices up to date with the latest security patches and updates. These patches often address vulnerabilities that could potentially be exploited by attackers to deliver malware.

Implementing proper user permissions and access controls can also help prevent malware attacks. This includes setting strong and unique passwords for all accounts, regularly updating passwords, and restricting access to only those who need it.

Finally, having a robust and regularly tested backup and recovery plan in place can help mitigate the impact of a malware attack. This allows you to restore your systems and data in case of an attack.

Keep Your Software Up to Date

Hackers often exploit vulnerabilities in older software to gain access to your system. By keeping your software up to date, you can ensure that those vulnerabilities are patched and your system is less likely to be compromised. It is important to regularly check for updates and install them as soon as they are available.

Use a Secure Browser

A secure browser can protect you from many types of malware, including phishing attacks and drive-by downloads. It can also block pop-up ads and protect your privacy. Some examples of secure browsers include Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Microsoft Edge.

Use a Firewall

A firewall is a network security system that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and decides whether to allow or block specific traffic based on a predetermined set of security rules. A firewall can protect you from many types of malware, including viruses and worms, by blocking traffic from known malicious sources.

Be Careful What You Download

One of the most common ways that people become infected with malware is by downloading and installing software from untrusted sources. It is important to be careful what you download and only download software from reputable sources. If you do need to download software from an unfamiliar website, be sure to scan it with your antivirus software before installing it.

Use Strong Passwords

Using strong passwords can help protect your accounts from being compromised by hackers. A strong password is one that is at least 8 characters long and includes a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters. Avoid using the same password for multiple accounts, and consider using a password manager to help you generate and remember strong passwords.

Types of Attacks:

Spear Phishing

Spear phishing involves personalizing the phishing email. So, while the "Nigerian prince" will send the same email to multiple addresses, the spear-phishing email will have a customized message making it look even more trustworthy. Common examples of spear-phishing emails are those that look like they came from a bank (or a trusted source) where they ask you to enter login information because of a technical issue and clean up your account. Another example is a fake email from a supervisor, business owner, or CEO mentioning important company files. The spear-phishing email in this case contains a malware-infected Excel or Word file that, once opened, unleashes an attack. The hacker is interested in the company's data.

Unauthorized Disclosure

Whenever a company or an organization discloses information about you without asking for your permission, you have become a victim of an unauthorized disclosure. A medical provider leaking your health information is also an unauthorized disclosure.


This is a refined form of phishing because the hacker targets a high-value person like a CEO or a celebrity. The hacker gathers all the possible information about the target. They gather details about hobbies, passions, occupations, schedules, friends, family, and so on. They gather all this information so the victim truly believes the email is sent by someone trustworthy and thus clicks the link or opens an attachment. Companies lose billions of dollars a year because of whaling.

Malware Attacks and Infections

Malware attacks are sent as malicious attachments or through downloads on suspicious websites. The moment you open the attachment, the process of infection begins. Sometimes, it's possible for the malware to end up on your computer without your approval, although these cases are rare. They called these rare cases drive-by downloads.

7. Techniques Used by Hackers:

Brute force attacks:

A brute force attack is a type of cyber attack where a hacker uses automated software to guess a password by trying every possible combination of characters. This type of attack is relatively easy to perform but can be time-consuming, especially if the password is long and complex.

Dictionary attacks:

A dictionary attack is similar to a brute force attack, but instead of trying every possible combination of characters, the hacker uses a pre-determined list of words (often from a dictionary) as the basis for their guesses. This type of attack is faster than a brute force attack but is still relatively slow and may not be effective against long and complex passwords.

Phishing attacks:

Phishing attacks are a type of social engineering attack where the hacker attempts to trick the victim into divulging sensitive information, such as passwords or credit card details, by disguising themselves as a trustworthy entity. This is often done through the use of fake websites or emails.

Man-in-the-middle attacks:

A man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack is a type of cyber attack where the hacker intercepts communication between two parties in order to gain access to sensitive information. This is often done by positioning themselves between the victim and the target system, allowing them to intercept and potentially alter the communication.

SQL injection attacks:

SQL injection attacks are a type of cyber attack where the hacker injects malicious code into a website's database through the use of flawed input validation. This allows them to gain access to sensitive information stored in the database or to manipulate the website's functionality.

Denial of service attacks:

A denial of service (DoS) attack is a type of cyber attack where the hacker overloads a system or network with traffic, rendering it unavailable to legitimate users. This is often done through the use of botnets, which are networks of compromised computers controlled by the hacker.

Buffer Overflow:

Buffer overflow attacks are caused when a program tries to store more data in a buffer (a temporary storage area in the computer's memory) than it is meant to hold. This can cause the program to crash or, in some cases, allow an attacker to execute arbitrary code, potentially giving them access to the system. This type of attack is more common in older systems that have not been properly updated with the latest security patches.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS):

Cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks are a type of injection attack where an attacker injects malicious code into a website in order to execute it on the client side (in the user's web browser). This type of attack is often used to steal sensitive information, such as login credentials, or to redirect the user to a malicious website.

8. Industrial Espionage in Cyberspace:

Cyber-espionage can have serious consequences for both the target and the attacker. If a government or a corporation is successfully targeted, it could lead to the loss of sensitive information, financial loss, and damage to reputation. In the case of a government, a successful cyber-espionage attack could also compromise national security and disrupt international relations.

On the other hand, the attacker also faces risks, including legal consequences if caught and the possibility of retaliation from the targeted entity or other governments. In recent years, there have been increasing efforts to address and prevent cyber-espionage, including international agreements and law enforcement efforts to track and prosecute those responsible for such attacks. It is important for both governments and corporations to take steps to protect themselves against cyber-espionage and to be aware of the potential risks and consequences of such attacks.

Top Spying Tactics:

Another tactic that is often used in cyber-espionage is to install malware on a target's computer or network. This malware can allow the attacker to monitor the target's activity, steal sensitive information, or gain access to restricted systems. Hackers may use various methods to install the malware, such as sending phishing emails with infected attachments, exploiting vulnerabilities in software or systems, or physically accessing the target's device and installing the malware directly. It is important for individuals and organizations to protect themselves against malware attacks by keeping their software and systems up to date, being cautious when opening emails or downloading attachments, and using antivirus and firewall software.

A Look at Cyber-Espionage Affairs:

Cyber-espionage has the potential to be extremely damaging, as it can allow unauthorized access to sensitive information and disrupt critical systems and infrastructure. It is important for countries and organizations to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect themselves, such as implementing strong cybersecurity measures and being vigilant against potential threats. This may include using firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, and regularly updating software and systems to fix vulnerabilities. It is also important for individuals to be aware of the risks of cyber-espionage and to take steps to protect themselves, such as being cautious about clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown sources and using strong, unique passwords for all accounts.

An Overview of Some Latest Cyber-Espionage Attack:

It is important for individuals and organizations to be aware of the potential threats of cyber espionage and take steps to protect themselves. This includes keeping software and security systems up to date, being cautious when opening emails or clicking on links from unknown sources, and having regular security risk assessments to identify and address vulnerabilities. Additionally, it is important for individuals and organizations to be aware of their own valuable information and take steps to secure it, such as through encryption and secure storage. By taking these precautions, individuals and organizations can reduce the risk of falling victim to cyber espionage attacks.

9. Encryption.

Encrypting the hard disk means that all the data stored on it will be automatically encrypted, and it will remain encrypted even when the computer is turned off. You will be prompted to provide a password or passphrase when you turn on the computer. This password will be used as a key to decrypt the data on the hard disk so that you can access it.

The advantage of full disk encryption is that even if someone physically steals your computer, they will not be able to access the data on it without the proper password. This is particularly useful if you store sensitive information on your computer, such as financial records or personal documents.

Another application of encryption is in online communication. When you send an email or make a phone call, your message is transmitted over the internet or a phone network. Without encryption, this communication can be intercepted by someone else and the contents of the message can be accessed.

To protect your communication, you can use an encrypted messaging app or use a virtual private network (VPN) when you are connected to the internet. These tools will encrypt your communication and make it much harder for someone else to intercept and access it.

In summary, encryption is a powerful tool that can protect your data and communication from being accessed by unauthorized parties. It is important to use encryption when storing or transmitting sensitive information to ensure its security and confidentiality.

Full Disk Encryption:

Full Disk Encryption is a security measure that encrypts all the data on a computer's hard disk. By default, data is not encrypted on most computers, so it's important to activate this function to protect your information. Without encryption, data can be accessed even if you have set up an account with a password. Encryption ensures that data can only be decrypted with the correct key, making it much more difficult for unauthorized users to access your information.

Laptops are particularly at risk for theft or loss, so it's important to protect them with encryption. Two common solutions for Full Disk Encryption are Bitlocker for Windows and FileVault 2 for Mac. These programs can also be used to encrypt and decrypt external drives. You may be asked to enter an additional code at startup, but this is a small inconvenience for the added security benefit.

Containers :

If you have an older operating system that doesn't support Full Disk Encryption, or if you only need to encrypt certain files and not the entire hard disk, you can use encrypted containers. These are essentially large, encrypted files that can hold other files and appear as external hard drives when "mounted." They can be accessed by entering the correct password or passphrase.

One popular program for managing containers is Veracrypt, which is available for Windows, Mac, and Linux. It allows you to create and access containers and choose a password or passphrase to encrypt and decrypt them. This can be a good alternative to Full Disk Encryption if you only need to secure a few specific files.


Mobile devices running modern operating systems, such as Android 6.0 or later and iOS 8 or later, have encryption enabled by default once an access PIN is set. You can use biometric methods like facial recognition or fingerprint scanning to unlock your device, or you can draw a pattern on the screen. However, it's important to note that patterns may not be as secure as PINs, as they can be more predictable and may leave a visible trace. Additionally, facial recognition may not work well on all devices. For maximum security, it's recommended to use a PIN.

To further enhance the security of your mobile device, you can set a short lock time for automatic locking. This will help protect your data if your device is lost or stolen. It's always a good idea to set a strong PIN and use other security measures, such as two-factor authentication, to protect your information.


10. Computer Security Technologies:


Hacking refers to the practice of gaining unauthorized access to a computer or network with the intention of stealing sensitive information or causing harm. Hackers use various tools to analyze systems and networks, identify vulnerabilities, and exploit them to gain access. These tools can also be used by IT professionals to assess and test systems for vulnerabilities.

While some hackers may be highly skilled and knowledgeable about the inner workings of systems and networks, others may use more simple techniques like phishing scams or fraud to achieve their goals. Regardless of the method used, hacking is often used for nefarious purposes such as invading privacy, stealing company data, or committing online scams and fraud. It's important to be aware of these threats and take steps to protect yourself and your information from potential hacking attempts.


EtherPeek is a packet sniffer and network analyzer tool that was developed by WildPackets. It was designed to allow network administrators to monitor and troubleshoot networks by capturing and analyzing packets in real-time. EtherPeek is able to capture packets from a variety of network protocols, as you mentioned, and can also decode and dissect them to provide detailed information about the contents of the packets. EtherPeek can be used for a variety of purposes, including network performance monitoring, troubleshooting, and security analysis. It is often used in enterprise and corporate environments to help maintain the health and security of networks.

QualysGuard :

QualysGuard is a cloud-based security and compliance platform developed by Qualys. It is designed to help organizations manage their network and web security, as well as their compliance with various industry regulations. QualysGuard consists of multiple modules and tools that work together to provide a comprehensive security and compliance solution. Some of the key features of QualysGuard include vulnerability management, web application scanning, network security assessment, and policy compliance. It is intended to help organizations identify and remediate vulnerabilities in their systems and networks, as well as to ensure that their security practices are up to date and compliant with relevant regulations. QualysGuard is often used by large enterprises and government organizations to help secure their networks and ensure compliance.


SuperScan is a network scanning and port scanning tool developed by Foundstone (now part of McAfee). It is designed to allow network administrators to quickly and easily scan networks for open ports and other information. Some of the key features of SuperScan include the ability to scan a range of ports or a user-defined list of ports, the ability to ping a range of IP addresses, and the ability to connect to open ports. SuperScan can also be used to update the descriptions of ports in its port list and to merge lists of ports. It is intended to be an easy-to-use tool for network administrators, with a user-friendly interface that makes it easy to understand and use.


WebInspect is a web application security testing tool developed by Micro Focus. It is designed to help developers identify vulnerabilities and security issues in web applications. WebInspect consists of multiple modules and features that work together to provide a comprehensive security assessment of web applications. Some of the key features of WebInspect include the ability to detect known and unknown vulnerabilities, the ability to analyze web server configurations, and the ability to perform various types of attacks such as parameter injection, directory traversal, and cross-site scripting. WebInspect is often used by developers and security professionals to identify and fix vulnerabilities in web applications before they are deployed.


LC4 (also known as L0phtCrack) is a password cracking and recovery tool developed by L0pht Heavy Industries (now known as MANDIANT). It is designed to help users recover lost or forgotten passwords for various systems, including Microsoft Windows. LC4 uses a variety of techniques, such as dictionary attacks, hybrid attacks, and brute-force attacks, to attempt to recover passwords. It also includes features for testing the strength of passwords and for identifying and analyzing potential vulnerabilities in systems. LC4 is often used by security professionals and IT administrators to help recover lost or forgotten passwords and to improve the security of systems by ensuring that strong passwords are used.


NMAP (Network Mapper) is a free and open-source network mapping and scanning tool developed by Gordon Lyon (also known as Fyodor Vaskovich). It is widely used by network administrators, security professionals, and IT enthusiasts to discover and audit networks, as you mentioned. NMAP can be used to identify the hosts and devices on a network, as well as the services and operating systems they are running. It can also be used to detect firewalls and other security measures, and to gather other important information about the network and its hosts. NMAP is known for its powerful features and flexibility, and is often used to perform tasks such as network inventory, security audits, and network service upgrades.


Metasploit is a free and open-source penetration testing platform developed by Rapid7. It is designed to help security professionals and researchers identify and exploit vulnerabilities in systems and networks. Metasploit includes a variety of tools and features for tasks such as network discovery, scanning, and exploitation. It is available in both command-line and web-based versions, as you mentioned. The Metasploit framework includes a large number of exploits and payloads that can be used to test the security of systems and networks. It is often used for tasks such as penetration testing, vulnerability assessment, and exploit development.

Burp Suite :

Burp Suite is a comprehensive web application security testing platform developed by PortSwigger. It is widely used by security professionals to perform a variety of tasks related to testing the security of web applications, including mapping and analyzing attack surfaces, detecting vulnerabilities, and conducting manual security testing. Burp Suite consists of multiple modules and features that work together to provide a complete solution for web application security testing. Some of the key features of Burp Suite include a user-friendly interface, support for manual testing techniques, and integration with other tools and platforms. It is often used by security professionals to identify and remediate vulnerabilities in web applications before they are deployed.

Angry IP Scanner:

Angry IP Scanner is a free and open-source network scanning tool that is available for Windows, Linux, and Mac. It is designed to allow administrators to quickly and easily scan a range of IP addresses to identify live hosts and open ports. Angry IP Scanner uses a multithreaded approach to combine multiple scanners and scan a large number of IP addresses in parallel. It can ping each IP address to determine if it is alive, and can also gather other information such as the hostname, MAC address, and open ports. The data gathered by Angry IP Scanner can be exported in various formats, including CSV, XML, and IP-Port files. Angry IP Scanner is often used for tasks such as network inventory, security assessment, and troubleshooting.

Cain & Abel :

Cain & Abel is a password recovery and cracking tool developed by Massimiliano Montoro. It is designed to help users recover lost or forgotten passwords for various systems, including Microsoft operating systems. Cain & Abel uses a variety of techniques to recover passwords, as you mentioned, including network sniffing, brute-force attacks, dictionary attacks, cryptanalysis, and more. It can also be used to recover wireless network keys and to analyze routing protocols and uncover cached passwords. Cain & Abel is often used by security consultants, system penetration testers, and other hackers to recover lost passwords and identify vulnerabilities in systems. However, it is important to use Cain & Abel responsibly and in accordance with relevant laws and regulations.

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